Unhealthy diet can lead to heart disease

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Is it okay to eat butter now?

“It’s not a sin,” says Steven Nissen, MD, chair of Cardiovascular Medicine at Cleveland Clinic. Dr. Nissen and other top cardiologists want you to know that things are changing in our view of diet and heart disease.

Indeed, the new federal government-commissioned Scientific Report of the 2015 Dietary Guidelines Advisory Committee includes some surprising departures from previous advice. Old beliefs have been overturned and new research avenues opened. Some controversies have heated up. Things are moving fast.

In case you missed something, Health Hub shares this roundup of the latest developments in our understanding of diet and heart disease.

Cholesterol


Okay, take a deep breath. We’re going to talk about cholesterol.

High-levels of cholesterol in the blood are strongly associated with coronary artery disease in patients of all types and ages. If you have a high level of cholesterol in your blood, you need to work with your doctor to make it lower, or face a higher risk of heart attack, stroke or other cardiovascular event.

But here’s the big news – you may not have to give up high cholesterol foods like butter, beef and bacon.

Many kinds of fat


“High cholesterol is a metabolic condition that can only be moderately influenced by diet,” says Dr. Nissen.

“Most circulating cholesterol is produced by the liver. Dietary cholesterol accounts for only about 15 to 20 percent of blood cholesterol. Changing the diet typically has only a modest effect on serum cholesterol levels.”

According to the above-cited Scientific Report, “Available evidence shows no appreciable relationship between consumption of dietary cholesterol and serum (blood) cholesterol.”

Down with no-fat diets


Dr. Nissen is strongly opposed to highly publicized low-fat diets that supposedly reverse coronary artery disease.

“You can use a bit of butter to flavor your food,” he says. “Moderation is key. There are a lot of reasons to hedge your bets, but you don’t have to absolutely avoid saturated fats. You just want to keep them under control.”

Trans fats


There is one kind of dietary fat that Dr. Nissen and everyone else says you should by all means avoid: trans fats. Trans fats are found in many fast foods, junk foods and commercial processed foods.

Also known as hydrogenated vegetable oils, they are totally linked to heart disease and should be shown no mercy.

What happened?


Why do experts sometimes change their minds about what’s good for you and what’s not? Because the science is always getting better.

“High-quality research requires meticulous methodology of the sort that’s evolved only recently with development of the randomized controlled trial,” says Dr. Nissen. “Research before the modern era relied mostly on observational studies, with all their inherent biases.”

Go Mediterranean


One study that Dr. Nissen strongly endorses is the PREDIMED investigation, published in theNew England Journal of Medicine in 2013. Looking at a high-risk population of 7,500 people, it found that a Mediterranean diet including extra virgin olive oil or nuts reduced the incidence of major cardiovascular events.

“This is a high-quality study that blows the low-fat diet myth out of the water,” he says. “It’s good news for people advocating a sensible, balanced and tasty diet. Go Mediterranean and enjoy life!”

Salt


High blood pressure raises the risk of heart attack, stroke and other deadly conditions. If you have high blood pressure, you need to work with your doctor to get it lower. But you may not have to give up salt.

For a long time, salt has dominated the popular view of high-blood pressure and its prevention. But a recent study of more than 8,000 adults found only a modest relationship between salt intake and systolic (the top number) blood pressure. This study found that most important modifiable risk factor for high blood pressure is body mass index – in other words: lose weight.

Red meat, eggs and dairy: Not off the hook


For generations, eggs and red meat have topped the list of foods implicated in cardiovascular disease because of their high levels of dietary cholesterol.

But the new science-led exoneration of fat described above would seem to let red meat and eggs off the hook. And it largely has, as regards fat. But a whole new line of investigation focused on intestinal bacteria is keeping eggs and red meat in the spotlight.

 Continue Here for the full article. 

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